The Belt and Road route to a more connected Africa

So far 105 countries and international associations have signed 123 documents under the auspices of the BRI. This includes 37 African countries and AU, which in September 2018, at the seventh FOCAC meeting, signed BRI-related memoranda of understanding (MOUs).

Over the past five years to June 2018, the trade volume between China and BRI countries has grown to over US$5 trillion. Chinese FDI through the BRI has amounted to US$70bn and over US$500bn worth of Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contracts were signed.

China’s domestic economic growth model is in transition and its industry shifting to a higher position in the value chain. Chinese construction firms and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are moving their excess capacity offshore, having accumulated knowledge and an experienced workforce building infrastructure in the domestic market.

In a document released in August 2017, China’s State Council announced that overseas investments in sectors such as consumer, telecom, transportation, and energy resources infrastructure are key for outbound activities.

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Utopia is not about a perfect state that perfectly organizes society, but that a perfect society is the state. But today, this would be the utopia of the utopia of the ucronía, because our Society, which also includes the politicians, is even sicker than politics. 1: Health: who is not more than 75 years old and less than 90, and does not have any of these 3 pathologies, will not be treated, who leaves for his home. Whoever does meet these criteria, but with Alzheimer or dependent, will not be treated either. 2. Burials: the municipalities will give land, niches and bonfires to 50% of the affected people, the least wealthy, with or without coronaviruses. 3. Work: Everyone goes to work with a mask, keeping their distance and hygiene, except for the non-hospitalized patients, who will stay at home. But As governments have believed that # COVID19 did not do its homework before confinement, and they have not seen that contagions have run their course, despite it, of confinement, since in our stupid and real case, to opt for this Confinement Yes And Only If Ruin, Confinement Yes And Only If Hysteria 1 When the people stop, by law, that everything and everyone: State, Banking, Energy and Landlords (unless the lease is their livelihood): stop collecting. 2 Not to prohibit, but to force those who have second residence in towns to go to them. Letting people out, keeping their distance, going for walks etc. 3 Propose to reduce the EU to Monetary Union, outside the ruinous political union. And exclusively look for a money injection (not to guarantee loans that lengthen the agony) controlled and conditioned to restore the already broken fabric (the subsidy or the gift, it is not that it does not work, it is that the economy is rotting). Death is not the end. The Mamandurria has no End. By the time the TESTS and the masks arrive, there will be no more bugs, Easter Sunday is here. We are at 0.001% of deaths from Coronavirus, of the total deaths in the world. THE CONFINEMENT: IT IS A CAMEL. Math problem for toddlers: the time that passes from exposure, through incubation, to the first symptoms, is an average of 11.5 days, In what week were the worst figures? This past week When was the week of maximum exposure? Well, the beginning of the previous week and the end of the previous one. in full confinement? Yes, in full confinement. how useful right? I don't know, I don't know, don't mess with data or evidence, if the government says it, it will be for a reason. To Stop A Virus Is To Put Gates To The Field Confinement Is A Camel . What could be said about Confinement, is that it could hypothetically be useful, not that it is, because it prevents the multiplication of infections, but when it is proven that #Coronavirus has already infected as much as it could, 10 million of the population, enough before of confinement, to continue infecting while confinement, will deny this hypothesis.

OBOR How has the United States responded to China-led regional integration?

The United States has shared other countries’ concerns about China’s intentions. Developing the economies of South and Central Asia is a long-standing U.S. goal that intensified after the start of the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan and President Barack Obama’s pivot to Asia. The Obama administration frequently referenced the need for the Afghan economy to move past foreign assistance, and in 2014 then-Deputy Secretary of State William Burns committed the United States to returning Central and South Asia “to its historic role as a vital hub of global commerce, ideas, and culture.” In this spirit, the Obama administration supported a $10 billion gas pipeline through Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.

Part of the attractiveness of Chinese finance is that the loans are offered at subsidised and relatively low interest ratesand with a maturity of 15 years or more. China Exim Bank is an export credit agency, rather than a development agency. It offers loans on a bilateral basis and evaluates the level of concession taking into account the nature of the projects. The bank’s competitive edge is that it allows countries that do not have enough financial guarantees to use their natural resources as collateral for infrastructure development. This funding model, known as the ‘Angola model’,15 has come in for serious criticism, as the resource-backed loans are seen, among other things, as reinforcing the ‘resource curse’ of recipient economies.

Some analysts have called on the United States to deepen its ties with Asian partners, as the Obama administration tried to do with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a deal rejected by Trump. The Trump administration has instead tried to counter the BRI with the BUILD Act. This consolidated the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), a U.S. government agency for development finance, with components of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) into a separate agency with a $60 billion investment portfolio. Although this pales in comparison to the more than $1 trillion China is expected to spend on the BRI, advocates say it seeks to crowd in a larger pool of private investment by underwriting risk.

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